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The feministic teaching method put forward by Chicago sees through the establishment and changes of existing social relation, culture, statues,system,structure, etc. From a individual physiological perspective. Starting from individual experience, it analyzes the social, cultural and financial capitals behind as well as the interactions in between. In this way, it perceives the relations between the world, the society and the individual, creating a unique way to express art.
1.This discussion begins with the trend of artistic development to endow everyone with the right to express himself/herself. “popular sovereignty”, “civil participation’, “grass-rooted culture” and other definitions like that all indicate the popularization of art. The bounds of art have shown changes that are anti-traditional, anti-regular and anti-authoritative. And the populism spirit these changes gave rise to benefits the development of art by promoting art education and revolution.
2.This discussion gives rise to reflections about races and the cultures behind. The importance of race becomes the main purpose of education; artistic creativity becomes the prime index for the value of ethnical heritage. It encourages the country’s self-confidence and self-respect at a national level.
3. In terms of group capital and individual capital,group capital, as a system based on internal relations, has a influence that is much larger than unrelated individuals. An established group share the same social target and value standard, which contributes to a strong bond that links all the members. As a result, it is much easier to change individual’s habits by changing the group’s habits on the whole. The discussion of gender equality in female groups helps to increase the influence of art on individuals and even the whole society.
One of the main target of art education is to endow every member of the society with the right to express himself/herself in diverse visual world.
1.Guarantee every student’s right to get education and express himself/herself in art to see the relationship between the world and himself/herself.
2.The changes in multidimensional interaction lead to the interaction of individual capital and social capital which results in discourse power. In internet society, the interaction relation of art education changed from mutual to multidimensional, which includes teaching evaluation, course interaction, teaching ethics, teaching method, knowledge and power, etc. Speaking from the perspective of socialization, the educatees as well as discourse power of art education have expanded while the feature of interaction becomes even more obvious and important.
3.The cultural production that decides the transform of the society and individuals requires space. Internet provides shelter for the internal productivity to create self culture by gathering and sharing. People can get together to form a group according to common likes and topics, inside which they can talk about the things they are interested in with little interference of the society. At the same time, they use their own logic to screen, transform and recombine the materials and recombine the definition of self based on the culture he/she received. When influence determines material choices, future individual’s material capital will reflect this internal productivity in the real world.
The method of talking to historical events is interesting. Judy Chicago’s individual-center theory, occupation construction and activity model-center theory that challenges historical events provides with us the truth about historical events and changes of individual elements in history. It helps to make gender, race, culture and elements like that in self identification more clear in the whole historical society structure.
First of all, we should analyze the intention of the artist’s creativity without ignoring the historic background. Artistic works are created in different times. They demonstrate the power and value of different politics, economy and culture through different themes. So, they have multiple meaning. The way to decipher these information depends on the receiver’s cultural capital and social capital code. This dialogue between historical events and individuals gives a whole new meaning to those artistic works already interpreted by historians to seek the social value behind which was originally covered by traditional values, for example, the social image and gender techniques brought by gender as well as the hierarchy based on gender as feminists see.
Secondly, the difference of identity consciousness between different races and genders exists all the time. The occurrence of social events comes right from the chaos brought by the inequality of this difference. A model o communicate with history is an effective way to hear each other, as well as to realize the interaction between capitals in space time dimension.
Thirdly, in order to reconstruct this social relation and social structure, we need to know the reasons of today’s individual social capital. Only when we know the way how art exists, capital been input and interests been shared can we use art to serve the society, and at the same time establish a sense of self-recognition in the society with our unique way to share thoughts and create art.
We live in a informatization age where society’s existence relies on the interaction between network capital and self capital. The old social structure, school structure and class structure based on the dominant condition of capital have changed accordingly. The development of civilization comes from forcible clash from both outside and inside. Individual behavior and feeling shaping affects greatly the development of civilization. Art comes right in as an important factor that works on individual’s internal recognition and social relation to shape behavior and feelings. From class teaching method to dinner education, Chicago’s teaching methods all encourage art teachers to go from investigating their own social experience background to reflecting on the explicit and implicit social statues of the ethnic group they belong to, thus recognizing the belief of gender equality. This process itself is a change in the existing oppressive structure. Art plays a role that uses philosophy and culturology to criticize the society and frees the human intelligence.
Social order requires close spaces, one of which is college. But art demands freedom; its nature is rebellious. So the encourage of art is very important for the reconstruction of social order. Then how to encourage and cultivate students in class?
First of all, privilege and authority has to be overthrown. The exchange and understanding of values and behavior codes can be achieved only when equality prevails.
Secondly, learn to replace thinking. This is an experience and understanding of others’ space and experience. A fine example is the “female’s room” in Chicago’s teaching, which creates a certain space to understand and liberate women.
Thirdly, to realize the reconstruction of capital through interaction. Every individual has his own unique capital brought by culture, race, family and their relation. Through communication and interaction, capitals can be rearranged to create a new perspective for comprehensive and innovative thinking. Every individual’s capital and capital structure reflects on the work. The interaction of capital create new perspective and new value. That is the beauty of art education–to achieve self-recognition and explore new artistic methods in various ways.
In this postmodern network society featuring knowledgeablization, informatization and mass consumption, the aesthetics of social structure and everyday experience has gone through great changes, demonstrating features of postmodernism: the massive permeation and expansion of culture towards politics and economy; the sharp decline in the life cycle of knowledge and technique; the expansion of factors that influence individual’s socialization; the trend of establishing authorities and equal dialogue. People start to pursue the sense of personal worth and the opportunities to communicate with the world.
2.Capital Operation and the Subsequent Issue of Educational Authority
Capital is a generic term for the social resources used to create material, spiritual and credit wealth and their internal relationships. It concludes cultural capital, social capital, financial capital, human resource capital and other explicit or implicit capital. The development of society relies on the exchanges between capitals to create new value. In the postmodern network society, capital accelerate the development of our society and even influences our world. Being the core of social development, Implicit capital includes capitals like culture, rights, nations, gender and their social relationship.
Class takes place in explicit as well as implicit capitals. The difference between people of different classes lies in not their economic relationship but the ever increasing cultural features and cultural orientation that come from their implicit capital. In art education, the construction of knowledge is also affected by class. Different class choose to learn different knowledge or process, transform, deliver and evaluate knowledge in different ways based on their values and interest orientation.
Teachers and students belong to different classes. As a result, their have different communication methods and cultural rules. The oneness of informatization and the diversification of access indeed gave rise to imbalance of authority relations between teachers and students–the authority of teachers are challenged. The spread and reproduction between classes have also changed: communication in colleges and between colleges and the outside world have become much more fast, easy and effective due to decrease in turnaround procedures. So, capital exploitation of individual student and interaction with them becomes major part of education in information society. Chicago’s teaching method meets right the demand.
3.Teachers’ Guidance in Education in Information Society
Since students have various access to information, teachers’ role in this system will definitely transfer from the previous directors to listeners and guides, even implicit guides. The value of college teachers has shifted from knowledge construction to distinguishing, reprocessing and using information.
First of all, teachers should be a moderate catalyst. The experience of self-development and self-recognition is a method to rebuild students’ self-confidence and rights. Teachers are just like outside catalysts. They have to trigger students’ inside catalysts to be able to work. Here are several ways for teachers to be outside catalysts without interfering or misleading the students’ thinking. No 1. Listen positively. Ask students to keep track of their words and find the inner voice from them. No.2. Ask questions. Students must try their best to give honest answers. Often in this exhausting condition will essence of problems appear. No.3. Let students think by themselves. Chinese Buddhism believes truths are got by the heart. That is to say, Buddhism is more about the heart than thoughts than methods. There are thousands of believers who studies Buddhism for years only to get no improvement in their understanding of it. Same is the case for education. Students have to understand things by their hearts.
Second, students must have the right to choose for themselves. During the process of implicit guidance, the combination of students’ free choice with teachers’ techniques works well. Detailed operation methods are as follows: mode.1. Free choice. Students inform the teachers of what they like to read and learn based on their interests and needs. Mode.2. Technology fit. Based on a long period of observation, recording and analyzing the students’ learning habits, test results, book lists, even family background, gender, and age, we combine technological methods of education, psychology and big data to find out what they are most probably to like, need and fit. This two modes will make teachers’ implicit guidance more effective.
The essence of this circle discussion is to create discussion space. Space is a social situation or field connected by various social relations and takes various forms. It is created trough connection of different social elements, which exist and work by taking different positions. Every man is at the same time a participant of space and time. Man becomes an capital to seek more value. And behind man, there are cultural capital and experience capital, the interaction between which give rise to new innovations and changes the value.
Artistic creation is a kind of experience, memory, and imagination. It is a recognition and experience of the society. Art defends people against the colonization of mass culture and brings people back to their nature. Postmodern art offers multifarious approaches to feel. It can be achieved without any knowledge about patterns, colors or graphic expressiveness. Many art creators come from all professions. This is in fact a requirement of modern society to visual art. We see colors, images and structures abandoned when art reaches the field of postmodernism. It starts to know the social cultural system. Once the support of formative aesthetic and technology is gone, artistic knowledge and techniques will degenerate into individual experience that are incapable of being copied and taught. This is why we must adopt the method of circled participating teaching to give everyone the chance to share his or her own experience. Besides, this method makes teaching process more meaningful while shorten the distance between teachers and students. When people are sharing their experiences, they are encouraged to let go of their self restraint to analyze their own growth. In this way, everyone becomes an element in the learning which learns in a dynamic environment. It is indeed a wonderful method for teachers and students who haven’t tried it before. There are several reasons why they didn’t try it: 1. They don’t understand art well or pay close attention to the society and underlying problems of human being.
2. They ignore the differences between students. Instead, these teachers use a relative model to restrict the students so as to turn skills into a handcuff to creativity. In this situation, students have to be clear about their current position and what he/she or the predecessors are doing in order to find a unique way to express himself/herself. 3. The propaganda and themed creation are too ideology-oriented.
For those who have tried this method, here are tips to follow: 1. Create a space where every participant can fully trust each other and willing to share his/her own experience. 2. Find out the technical weak points through discussion. At the same time, point out that artists’ creation depends not only on talent to make everyone realize the power of the group comes from their unique language background, ideological capital and social relations.